Overall, this study makes two important contributions. First, after identifying the key institutional domains to be investigated, we provide a systematic theoretical reasoning about the influence of their complementarities in shaping gender balance on corporate board of directors. Second, the use of a configurational approach provides an important methodological contribution. Through fs/QCA, we empirically explore our theory-derived propositions and capture the complex relationships between country-level causal conditions and the representation of women on boards. As a result, our paper refines and expands insights from the extant comparative corporate governance literature, by opening a window for further complementary-based research concerning board composition and demography. For policy makers, it provides some insights that can better drive their choice about which mix of policies might be necessary to improve female representation on boards, and especially in which institutional domains they should be implemented.